PROCESS SKILLS BASED ON STANDARDS 1, 2, 6, AND 7 

Quantity length mass time electric current temperature amount luminous intensity 
Fundamental Units meter kilogram second ampere kelvin mole candela 
Symbol m kg s A K mol cd 
STANDARD 1—Analysis, Inquiry, and Design Mathematical Analysis Students will use mathematical analysis, scientific inquiry, and engineering design, as appropriate, to pose questions, seek answers, and develop solutions. Key Idea 1: Abstraction and symbolic representation are used to communicate mathematically. M1.1Use algebraic and geometric representations to describe and compare data. · use scaled diagrams to represent and manipulate vector quantities · represent physical quantities in graphical form · construct graphs of realworld data (scatter plots, line or curve of best fit) · manipulate equations to solve for unknowns · use dimensional analysis to confirm algebraic solutions
Key Idea 2: Deductive and inductive reasoning are used to reach mathematical conclusions. M2.1Use deductive reasoning to construct and evaluate conjectures and arguments, recognizing that patterns and relationships in mathematics assist them in arriving at these conjectures and arguments. · interpret graphs to determine the mathematical relationship between the variables


STANDARD 1—Analysis, Inquiry, and Design Scientific Inquiry Key Idea 1: The central purpose of scientific inquiry is to develop explanations of natural phenomena in a continuing, creative process. · develop extended visual models and mathematical formulations to represent an understanding of natural phenomena · clarify ideas through reasoning, research, and discussion · evaluate competing explanations and overcome misconceptions
Key Idea 2: Beyond the use of reasoning and consensus, scientific inquiry involves the testing of proposed explanations involving the use of conventional techniques and procedures and usually requiring considerable ingenuity.
Key Idea 3: The observations made while testing proposed explanations, when analyzed using conventional and invented methods, provide new insights into phenomena. 

STANDARD 1—Analysis, Inquiry, and Design Engineering Design Key Idea 1: Engineering design is an iterative process involving modeling and optimization (finding the best solution within given constraints) which is used to develop technological solutions to problems within given constraints.


STANDARD 2 Students will access, generate, process, and transfer information, using appropriate technologies.
Key Idea 1: Information technology is used to retrieve, process, and communicate information as a tool to enhance learning.
Key Idea 2: Knowledge of the impacts and limitations of information systems is essential to its effective and ethical use.
Key Idea 3: Information technology can have positive and negative impacts on society, depending upon how it is used. 

STANDARD 6—Interconnectedness: Common Themes Systems Thinking Students will understand the relationships and common themes that connect mathematics, science, and technology and apply the themes to these and other areas of learning. Key Idea 1: Through systems thinking, people can recognize the commonalities that exist among all systems and how parts of a system interrelate and combine to perform specific functions.


STANDARD 6—Interconnectedness: Common Themes Models Key Idea 2: Models are simplified representations of objects, structures, or systems used in analysis, explanation, interpretation, or design.


STANDARD 6—Interconnectedness: Common Themes Magnitude and Scale Key Idea 3: The grouping of magnitudes of size, time, frequency, and pressures or other units of measurement into a series of relative order provides a useful way to deal with the immense range and the changes in scale that affect the behavior and design of systems. 

STANDARD 6—Interconnectedness: Common Themes Equilibrium and Scale Key Idea 4: Equilibrium is a state of stability due either to a lack of change (static equilibrium) or a balance between opposing forces (dynamic equilibrium). 

STANDARD 6—Interconnectedness: Common Themes Patterns of Change Key Idea 5: Identifying patterns of change is necessary for making predictions about future behavior and conditions.


STANDARD 6—Interconnectedness: Common Themes Optimization Key Idea 6: In order to arrive at the best solution that meets criteria within constraints, it is often necessary to make tradeoffs.


STANDARD 7—Interdisciplinary Problem Solving Connections Students will apply the knowledge and thinking skills of mathematics, science, and technology to address reallife problems and make informed decisions. Key Idea 1: The knowledge and skills of mathematics, science, and technology are used together to make informed decisions and solve problems, especially those relating to issues of science/technology/society, consumer decision making, design, and inquiry into phenomena. 

STANDARD 7—Interdisciplinary Problem Solving Strategies Key Idea 2: Solving interdisciplinary problems involves a variety of skills and strategies, including effective work habits; gathering and processing information; generating and analyzing ideas; realizing ideas; making connections among the common themes of mathematics, science, and technology; and presenting results. · collect, analyze, interpret, and present data, using appropriate tools · If students participate in an extended, culminating mathematics, science, and technology project, then students should: · work effectively · gather and process information · generate and analyze ideas · observe common themes · realize ideas · present results


PROCESS SKILLS BASED ON STANDARD 4 Science process skills should be based on a series of discoveries. Students learn most effectively when they have a central role in the discovery process. To that end, Standards 1, 2, 6, and 7 incorporate a studentcentered, problemsolving approach to physics. This list is not intended to be an allinclusive list of the content or skills that teachers are expected to incorporate into their curriculum. It should be a goal of the instructor to encourage science process skills that will provide students with the background and curiosity to investigate important issues in the world around them. 

STANDARD 4—The Physical Setting Students will understand and apply scientific concepts, principles, and theories pertaining to the physical setting and living environment and recognize the historical development of ideas in science. Key Idea 4: Energy exists in many forms, and when these forms change energy is conserved. The law of conservation of energy provides one of the basic keys to understanding the universe. The fundamental tenet of this law is that the total massenergy of the universe is constant; however, energy can be transferred in many ways. Historically, scientists have treated the law of conservation of matter and energy separately. All energy can be classified as either kinetic or potential. When work is done on or by a system, the energy of the system changes. This relationship is known as the workenergy theorem. Energy may be transferred by matter or by waves. Waves transfer energy without transferring mass. Most of the information scientists gather about the universe is derived by detecting and analyzing waves. This process has been enhanced through the use of digital analysis. Types of waves include mechanical and electromagnetic. All waves have the same characteristics and exhibit certain behaviors, subject to the constraints of conservation of energy.
Key Idea 5: Energy and matter interact through forces that result in changes in motion. Introduction: Fundamental forces govern all the interactions of the universe. The interaction of masses is determined by the gravitational force; the interaction of charges is determined by the electroweak force; the interaction between particles in the nucleus is controlled by the strong force. Changes in the motion of an object require a force. Newton’s laws can be used to explain and predict the motion of an object. On the atomic level, the quantum nature of the fundamental forces becomes evident. Models of the atom have been developed to incorporate waveparticle duality, quantization, and the conservation laws. These models have been modified to reflect new observations; they continue to evolve. Everyday experiences are manifestations of patterns that repeat themselves from the subnuclear to the cosmic level. Models that are used at each level reflect these patterns. The future development of physics is likely to be derived from these realms. 